General

Hepatitis a - hepatitis b and prevention methods in children

Hepatitis a - hepatitis b and prevention methods in children

Virus-induced liver disease is common in children. These are usually hepatitis A and type B viruses and have vaccines. Hepatitis begins slowly and in a way that is not self-evident. The child is tired, his appetite closes, his stomach aches and vomits. Sometimes it makes a little rash, the joints hurt. After a few days, the color becomes more or less yellow, the urine is low and very yellow, and the poo is colorless. Often these symptoms are very mild, the child complains of fatigue alone.Laboratory assays help to diagnose (Transaminase increases, etc.)

HEPATITIS A

Hepatitis A virus is caused by inflammation of the liver. It is more common than hepatitis B, the disease develops in a simple way and does not cause complications. Passes in 2-3 weeks. The treatment is to rest.

Infection: The virus passes through water, dirty food, poop and stomach. The most important measure is to take care of every food and make sure that the hands are clean. Gamma globulin injections may prevent the disease if the patient is treated early. The symptoms of the hapatitis A virus may be excreted from the stool of the infected person 2-3 weeks prior to the onset and during the first week of the disease. Blood and secretions can be contagious.

Symptoms: Symptoms of hepatitis A are flu-like. But the skin and eyes may be yellow. This is because the liver does not filter out the bilirubin.

  • Jaundice
  • Anorexia
  • Fatigue
  • Light fire
  • Dark urine
  • Common itching
  • Colorless or clay color stool

Risk factors:

  • Healing dormitory employees
  • Employees in nursing homes
  • Employees in rehabilitation centers
  • A member of the family with new hepatitis A infection
  • Immigration or travelers to Asia, South and Central America

Protection:

Hygiene should be observed. Wash hands after toilet. The contaminated area should be thoroughly cleaned if the blood, feces or any other body fluid has come into contact with the unaffected person. This can reduce virus transmission

Vaccine: Hepatitis A vaccine is given at 2 times with 1 month intervals. A booster is also made in 6-12 months. Vaccines are recommended for people at risk: travelers, nursery staff, kitchen staff, family patients, etc. Infants are not vaccinated systematically because the disease is harmless.

HEPATITIS B

Hepatitis B virus caused by inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis A is less common. This disease is more dangerous; because it may become chronic. Blood and sexually transmitted. The vaccine has been compulsory in many countries.

In general, hepatitis B is considered a sexually transmitted disease. Hepatitis B is also referred to as ‚Äúserum hepatitis için because it is contaminated with contaminated blood or blood.

Health workers such as doctors, nurses, emergency personnel, and intravenous drug users (addicts) are in a high risk group for hepatitis B because they are easily transmitted by blood.

The transition from the mother with hepatitis B to the fetus before birth is another form of transition.

About 10% of people once infected with hepatitis B virus develop chronic persistent infection (chronic carrier status). Some people in this group develop slow but progressive liver damage leading to cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Hepatitis B has a long incubation period. Early symptoms can be various skin rashes and joint pain. Systemic symptoms may include fever, malaise, and abdominal pain or discomfort. Ultimately, jaundice becomes visible on the white of the eyes and on the skin. Jaundice is often associated with dark urine and clay-colored (pale) feces.

Hepatitis B is a serious disease and the mortality rate during the acute stage is about 1%. Reported hepatitis B rate is 2 out of every 10,000 people. However, since many cases are asymptomatic, there is no witnessed and unreported, so the true (true) rate may be higher. It is a carrier of cumulative hepatitis B per 1000 pregnant women.

People at highest risk for acquired hepatitis B infection:

  • Homosexual or bisexuals
  • Intravenous drug users
  • They are very partners.

Hepatitis B vaccine

  • Health workers ,
  • Hemodialysis patients,
  • People who need blood transfusions many times and
  • It is sufficient to decrease hepatitis B in newborns.

Protection:
Hepatitis B is an acute disease that results in increasing the incidence of long-term failure and liver cancer after chronic infection.
Screening of donated blood reduced the likelihood of developing hepatitis B after blood transfusion. Blood donors are required to fill out a questionnaire on drug use and sexual life during initial screenings (which is also necessary to protect against AIDS).

There is a hepatitis B vaccine for people at high risk. As a customary safety measure, contact with blood products of persons with unknown carrier status should be avoided. This security can also be provided for AIDS.

Sexual contact with persons who have previously had hepatitis B or have been infected with hepatitis B and have not been vaccinated should be avoided.

Condoms can reduce the spread of hepatitis B when used consistently and appropriately; they may even destroy it. If you have not been vaccinated and are not sure of your sexual partner's condition, you should always use a condom.

Attention: Infants born from hepatitis B positive mothers are given special immune sequences that protect them from infection. These include hepatitis B immunoglobulin, the hepatitis vaccine immediately after birth and the recurrence of hepatitis a few weeks later.

symptoms

  • jaundice
  • fatigue
  • anorexia
  • nausea and vomiting
  • taste disorder
  • abdominal pain
  • indigestion
  • joint pain
  • depression
  • malaise
  • light fire
  • common itching
  • pale or clay colored
  • Dot sensitivity on liver (sensitivity)
  • symptoms of nosebleed

Diagnosis / Diagnosis

  • Positive hepatitis B surface antigen
  • Positive hepatitis B core antigen
  • Elevated liver enzymes
  • Liver biopsy

The disease varies with the following test results:

  • Vitamin B 12
  • RT3U (resin T3 uptake) (test where blood T3 uptake is measured)
  • PT (test where prothrombin time in serum is measured.)
  • urine porphyrin
  • PBG (porphobilinogen)
  • Liver scintigraphy
  • serum leucine aminopeptidase
  • urine leucine aminopeptidase
  • LDH isoenzymes
  • LDH (lactate dehydrogenase)
  • serum iron
  • gamma glutamyl tanspeptidase
  • delta-ALA (delta-aminolevulinic acid)
  • complement component 3
  • blood count
  • urine bilirubin
  • bilirubin
  • AST (aspartate transaminase)
  • ALT (alanine transaminase)
  • alpha fetoprotein
  • ALP (alkaline phosphatase) isoenzymeAlP
  • aldolase aalbumin
  • 5'nükleotidaz

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis.
When symptoms are severe, rest may be recommended during the acute phase.
People with acute hepatitis should avoid alcohol and other substances that are harmful to the liver.
Some people with chronic hepatitis may respond to alpha-interferon therapy

Prognosis / Disease course

Acute disease usually subsides in two to three weeks and the liver returns to normal within sixteen weeks.
Chronic hepatitis may develop in 10% of infected people.
The incidence of liver cancer in people with hepatitis B is higher than in the general population.
Hepatitis B is lethal in about 1% of acute hepatitis B cases.

Complications / Risks