General

What are prenatal diagnostic methods?

What are prenatal diagnostic methods?

Girl or boy? Will I have blond hair like Grandma, green eyes like Grandpa? Your father's voice or your mother's beauty? Most importantly, will my baby be healthy? Until recently, these questions could only be answered after the baby was born. Today, it can be answered even by early prenatal diagnosis methods as early as six weeks after fertilization.

Prenatal diagnosis methods; It is not suitable for everyone because of its very low permanent risks.

The most suitable candidates for these methods are:

• Over 35
• Carriers of a genetic disease or family history of such a disease
• Those who have contracted infectious diseases such as rubella or toxoplasmosis, which are known to cause birth defects.
• Some of the substances or substances that are feared to be harmful to developing babies after they have been fertilized.
• Pregnancies that have not ended with birth or babies born with birth defects.

Now let's get to know these methods:

AMINOSYNTHESIS
The aim of the study is to examine the baby's cells, possible chemicals and microbial status, if any, by taking samples from the surrounding amniotic fluid.

Applies to:
• The mother is over 35 years of age (80-90% of this method is used to determine the risk of down syndrome in older pregnancies.)
• Genetic disease, pregnancy with a baby with Down syndrome or family history
• To determine the maturity of the baby's lungs (in case of premature delivery)
• If other screening tests gave abnormal results (serum alpha feto protein, ultrasound, estrogen or HCG determination in the mother)

Amniocentesis is usually 16-18 in the second trimester. week (earliest 14, 20 weeks at the latest). Also in the last three months of pregnancy is done to determine the status of the lungs. Amniocentesis is performed by entering the uterus through the abdomen with a thin needle accompanied by local anesthesia. This procedure lasts up to 30 minutes. This procedure is not very risky. In one of the facial treatments, women have mild vaginal bleeding or discharge.

ULTRASOUND
The development of ultrasound technique has made birth more precise science. This technique; X-ray is based on the visualization of sound waves on a screen as it passes through internal organs without the danger of radiation. Thanks to the screen of the device you can see your baby and you can even take a photo.
• To determine how pregnancy is going and in what month
• If there is more than average risk or curiosity regarding an abnormality
• 7. After weeks to confirm the exact pregnancy
• To determine the exact location of the baby before amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling
• 14. to determine the baby's condition if the heart sound is still not detected with the Doppler device at week 2, or if baby movements have not yet begun at week 22
• To determine the amount of amniotic fluid and the state of the placenta

Ultrasound can be done at any time until the birth after the 5th week. The device records the sound waves passing through the baby's body.

fetoscopy
A long, thin binocular device equipped with light and lens is inserted into the amniotic sac with a thin incision in the abdomen and uterus, where the baby is photographed. At the same time, blood and tissue samples of the baby can be taken with this tool and many diseases that cannot be investigated by amniocentesis can be diagnosed. However, it is not widely used because it is a high risk application. It can be applied after 16 weeks of pregnancy. 3% to 5% can lead to infant loss.

SERUM ALFA-FETA-PROTEIN SCREENING IN THE MOTHER
High levels of alpha feta protein, a substance produced by the baby, in the blood or serum; spina bifida (spinal canal opening) or anencephaly (absence of head bones) indicates that the brain spinal cord. Abnormally low, it suggests an increased risk of Down syndrome or other chromosomal defect.

This test is 16-18. weeks. A small blood sample taken from the mother does not carry a risk for the baby and the mother. The test may give a false positive result, ie the result may be high or low while the result is normal. That could make us think there's a risk. Therefore, if an abnormal result is obtained, the test is requested to be repeated.

CHRONIC VILLA SAMPLING (CVS)
A sample is taken from chorionic villuses, which are infant-derived structures. The period in which amniocentesis shows us something (this occurs at the earliest 16th week of pregnancy) is a late period for termination of pregnancy. CVS; cervix or abdomen with a needle is made by entering. weeks. Chorionic villus, which gives a complete genetic picture of the developing infant, are infant-derived structures.
However, it is known that in some medical centers where the application is performed, it causes arm and leg defects in the baby and also has a lower risk than amniocentesis.

N What awaits you while you wait for your baby ” from the book.