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What Are Prenatal Tests? Why should it be done?

What Are Prenatal Tests? Why should it be done?

The wish of every parent is to have a healthy child. Many tests are used to assess whether your baby is healthy during pregnancy. Bahçeci Gynecology & Obstetrics, Diagnosis and Treatment Center Op. Dr. Bora Cengiz, Bebek Every baby is valuable, whether in the normal way or infertility. If the 9-month process is followed very well and all examinations are performed in time, disabled babies will no longer be born! ”

What is a screening test?

Tests applied to all individuals of the society for the recognition of a specific disease in healthy individuals screening test It is called. Thanks to these tests, the disease is intervened before or during the early period. Breast cancer in breast cancer, cervical cancer (PAP smear test) are the main screening tests used in women's health. However, the screening test is not a diagnostic test. Additional tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis in patients with positive or high risk screening tests. Tissue sampling (biopsy) from the suspicious area in the breast film or biopsy from the cervix after smear can be given as examples. These tests are called ısal diagnostic ”tests.

Why are diagnostic tests not performed first?

Screening tests can be applied to all individuals, cheap and least disturbing tests that cause the person. Diagnostic tests are expensive procedures such as biopsy or amniocentesis, requiring special intervention, expertise and laboratory evaluation. For example, for the diagnosis of Down syndrome, amniocentesis should be performed. This process requires an experienced specialist doctor, ultrasound, and a genetic laboratory and genetic specialist for chromosome analysis. There is a risk of miscarriage after treatment. Because of their risks and costs, only diagnostic tests are applied to pregnant women whose test results are reported as “high risk”.

What is a chromosome?

They are the building blocks that carry the information that makes us who we are in our chromosome cells and pass this information from us to our children. There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in man. A pair of these chromosomes are sex chromosomes (XY male; XX female).

What is Down Syndrome?

Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disease caused by excess or part of chromosome 21. Children with Down syndrome have mild or severe mental retardation, learning disabilities and physical development retardation. Slanted eyes, shortness of arms and legs and speech problems are the main physical features. They are also at high risk for heart abnormalities, reflux, recurrent ear infections, sleep disturbances and thyroid diseases. It appears to be one in 800-1000 births in the community.

How is Down syndrome screened during pregnancy?

10-14 of pregnancy. weeks and 16-18. The blood of the mother is taken and biochemical screening is performed in the postnatal week. These tests are not testi intelligence tests.. As you know, intelligence tests are not written with blood but written and oral evaluations. The definition of testi intelligence test maktad is used incorrectly.

First trimester screening

Obstetricians define the pregnancy process by dividing it into three (trimesters). The first 14 weeks are called the first trimester. 10-14 of pregnancy. Your doctor will measure your baby's age, heart beat, and nasal bone by ultrasound between the weeks of gestation. It also measures the thickness (NT) of edema in the back of the neck, which is normally found between those weeks. Risk estimation is done with age, NT measurement and blood tests.

Second trimester screening

16-18 in the second trimester of pregnancy (second trimester). This is the test performed by taking blood from the mother during gestational weeks. In this test, risk calculation will be done and results will be given.

What's the risk?

The screening test is not a diagnostic test, but the aim is to apply the diagnostic test (chromosome analysis) and interventions (amniocentesis) to the smallest number of possible (high-risk) individuals after the screening test. The “high-risk” or “positive” report for Down's syndrome on the report sheets provided does not imply that your baby has Down's syndrome. Reports with a similar interpretation as “low risk” or “negative da do not mean that your baby will not have Down's syndrome. At best, nine out of every 10 Down syndrome babies will be detected with this screening logic, but one will be born. This figure applies to all centers in the world implementing a similar screening policy.

Then should everyone have diagnostic tests, such as amniocentesis, to everyone?

Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test, not a screening test. Perhaps what is never mentioned is not “economic hem in terms of both financial and pregnant health. Amniocentesis causes pregnancy loss in 2-5 cases per 1000 procedures. For this reason, amniocentesis is recommended by your doctor only in pregnancies that come as “high risk ucu after screening test. In addition, pregnant women who understand and accept the risks of amniocentesis and discuss all the results of this procedure are also given amniocentesis.

Is screening test performed in multiple pregnancies?

As the number of infants increases, the values ​​measured in the mother's blood will also vary depending on the number of pregnancies. Therefore, maternal blood values ​​are not used for screening purposes in multiple pregnancies. 10-14 in multiple pregnancies. Although NT and nasal bone measurements can be evaluated between the gestational weeks and Down syndrome in the second trimester;