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Preterm delivery is the condition that the gestation takes place before the 37th gestational week during the 40-week pregnancy period, starting from the first day of the mother's last menstrual date. Kadıköy Şifa Hospital Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Op. Dr. Evrim Aksoy, answered the 5 most important questions about preterm birth.
The prevalence of preterm birth, which may be a bad surprise for the pregnancy, is given in 5-10%, however, despite all the medical developments, the incidence cannot be reduced or even increased.
Prematurity is, unfortunately, a serious risk for the baby, and the associated complications can be fatal.
22-23. The chances of survival of babies born at gestational weeks are given in 20% even in developed countries, but are even lower in our country. As we move towards 28th gestational week, the chance of survival increases and the incidence of possible complications decreases.
What causes preterm labor?
The mechanism of preterm delivery has not been fully elucidated. We examine a group of 25% as premature births with medical necessity for the well-being of the baby and the mother.
Hormonal effects, infections, multiple pregnancies and stretching of the uterus are thought to be the cause of spontaneous preterm delivery.
Which women may be at risk for preterm labor?
• Premature births
• Multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets)
• Those with cervical or cervical abnormalities
• Those under 17 or older than 35
• Cigarette, alcohol or drug users
• Do not get under control of the physician during pregnancy
• People with hypertension or diabetes
• Stressed or malnourished
• Infection of the lower genital system
What are the most common problems in premature babies?
• Shortage of respiratory failure (lung damage)
• Intracranial hemorrhages
• Cardiovascular problems
• Bowel problems - common damage
• Anemia (anemia)
• Spasticity due to brain damage
What are the precautions that can be taken against the risk of prematurity?
All women planning pregnancy should undergo a doctor check before pregnancy. In this way, it is possible to determine whether there is a significant health problem (such as high blood pressure or diabetes) that may lead to premature birth of the mother.
Again, all women planning pregnancy should use 400 micrograms of folic acid daily before pregnancy and until the 3rd month of pregnancy. Recent studies have shown that folic acid, initiated one year before pregnancy, significantly reduces the risk of prematurity. Folic acid also reduces brain and neural tube abnormalities.
Pregnant mothers should stop smoking before pregnancy, the drugs used should be arranged in consultation with the physician, those who are obese or extremely low weight should optimize their weight, on average 10-13 kg during pregnancy should be taken.
Can medical problems of premature babies be prevented in advance?
Pregnant, who is expected to give birth prematurely, is hospitalized and corticosteroid treatment is started to ensure the development of the lungs of the baby.
The various drug protocols used to temporarily stop the birth pain we call “tocolysis id should be chosen specifically for each patient. This delay, though short-lived, gives us time to treat corticosteroids.
Since premature babies often require intensive care units, giving birth in a well-developed center of the baby's intensive care unit will play an important role in reducing the complications that the baby may experience later.